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Page 408 of Nineteenth century and after : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 1)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps.

INVENTION OF STETHOSCOPE emblem of German freedom, no less than 94 were condemned to death. Wilhelm von Humboldt, the best and most lib- eral of Prussian Ministers during the first half of the nine- teer.th century, resigned his portfolio in disgust The zeal with which the Prussian Government accepted these meas- ures made it useless for the minor German States to offer much opposition. Yet they formed the only remaining bul- wark against Metternich's restrictive policy. In spite of his strenuous opposition, the rulers of Bavaria and Baden granted to their subjects constitutional forms of government Representative assemblies with lower and upper houses, after the manner of the English Parliament, were established. In Wurtemburg serfdom was abolished, and a constitution was published a few days before the enrolment of the decrees of Carlsbad. In France, Dr. Lagnnec published his epoch-making work, "Treatise on Mediate Auscultation," the result of his recent experiments in listening to human heart-beats and lung res- pirations through a hollow cylinder, to which La6nnec gave the name of "stethoscope." Laennecs contributions to the study of diseases of the lungs, of the heart, and of the ab- dominal organs may be said to have laid the foundation of modern clinical medicine. Parliamentary government in France worked none too smoothly. In the Chambers the rise of the independent party and anti-Bourbon faction caused the Duc de Richelieu to resign. Louis XVIII entrusted to his favorite, Decazes, the formation of a new Cabinet. Decazes found it difficult to select competent men for the various portfolios. His Cabinet, when finally brought together, lacked internal unity and outward support. Its career was early imperiled by the untoward election of Bishop Gregoire of Grenoble, one of the regicides, to the Chamber of Deputies. This popular manifestation, though sufficiently explained by the sterling 408 1819

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