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Page 6 of Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal v.23 n.1

Part of Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal

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be given to their training and qualification to insure an efficient service. Sources of guidance literature outline the qualifications of counsel- ors as having (1) at least ten years teaching experience; (2) a knowledge of mental test- ing; (3) extended training in psychology; (4) training in gathering and analyzing data; (5) training in occupational, vocational, and educational opportunities; (6) desirable per- sonality traits. Puls (4:45) discovered in Louisiana that almost every faculty had a person with personal qualifications, basic training, and experience sufficient to assume guidance duties in their schools. Teaching experience rep- resented the counselor qualification most often met by teachers of Kentucky high schools. In less than 50 per cent of the schools were persons with extended training in psychology, in gathering and analyzing data and training in vocational and educational opportunities. Since guidance in our schools is a responsibility of the classroom teacher and since only a few teachers have training in the field of guidance, it is seen that the lack of training of teachers presents a serious problem. Hines and Manly (2:113) report that two-thirds of the schools have all teacher-participation guidance pro- grams; however, two thirds of all teachers have had no guidance training, which they termed a critical guidance situation among Negro high schools of the southeastern area of the United States. Time for counseling-To carry on a guid- ance program effectively, time must be given for counseling with pupils, conferring with teachers and parents, and for compiling pupil information. Puls (4:45) found that in small- er schools, one period per day was sufficient for guidance with more time being allotted as the program expands. This study revealed that only fourteen or 38 per cent of the schools surveyed allow time for counseling with pupils. Time for conferring with teachers and parents and for compiling pupil information was re- ported by only twelve or 32 per cent of the schools. Counseling area-It was found that coun- seling with pupils was most often carried out in the principal's office along with other ad- ministrative duties. In only four or eleven per cent of the schools was there found counseling offices for counselors. The most desirable area for counseling is one where privacy exists and yet without the emptiness which may be found in the classrooms. Walquist (6:24) points out that there should be a waiting room for students with magazines and comfortable seating, and that counseling should take place in an office adjacent to the record vault. A comparison of the counseling areas of our schools with those recommended by authorities indicates that counseling does not proceed under the most conducive situations. Atypical children-By virtue of his close contact with pupils daily, the teacher is an important person in carrying out the guidance program. Strang (5:18) says that there is no one in the school who has so good an oppor- tunity as the teacher to learn the individual pupils, to observe them and to adjust the school situation to their needs. In the survey, the teachers were considered in the role of (1) gathering pupil information; (2) assisting with the testing program; (3) doing remedial teach- ing; (4) making social adjustment; (5) vary- ing their teaching methods to fit the learning situation. Data compiled in this phase of the guidance work indicated that teachers were doing a commendable job as revealed by the consistent high frequency of response to the following characteristics: 1. Home visitation 2. Keeping attendance records 3. Talks with parents 4. Administering tests 5. Discovering strong and weak areas of pupils 6. Giving individual help to pupils 7. Diagnosing difficulty of low pupils 8. Assisting pupils with personal and social problems 9. Encouraging pupil participation in classroom procedures 10. Making educational and vocational ap- proaches to subject matter 11. Planning democratically 12. Planning interesting projects Weaknesses persisted in the characteristics of the following: 1. Using anecdotal records and pupil auto- biographies 2. Making case studies 3. Evaluating tests in terms of the course objectives 4. Determining the level and aptitude of train- ing of pupils for various courses 5. Surveying records for low and exceptional children 6. Referring unusual cases to specialists Community survey- The guidance pro- gram in its maximum effect reaches beyond the limits of the school. Rapidly shifting social and occupational changes are a challenge to the school's attempt to adjust pupils to life. Changes such as these suggest a variety of explorations in actual life experiences. In the preparation of the school to meet the needs of pupils, wide use of community resources should be utilized. Weakness seemed to prevail in the use of the community survey for guidance practices in the high schools. The study showed that oc- 6

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