to the crosswalk in front of you. What should you
Wait for him. The pedestrian has the right of
way at all marked crosswalks and at all intersections. (Never pass any vehicle which has
stopped to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway.)
Left Turn Only
Urban Driving Is No Dream
But Don't Make It A Nightmare
Kentucky is largely a rural state, and because
of this very fact, city driving can be a big problem to Kentucky drivers. To the non-cit- y
resident, driving in a metropolis can be a nightmare
... often because city folks make it that way.
Here are some "dreamed up" city driving
situations to help both urban and
drivers sleep more soundly the night before they
tangle with the city snarl.
You are driving on a three-lan- e
You want to turn right, but there is a long lineof
traffic in the right lane -- - and you are in it. What
should you do?
Keep driving until you can safely get into the
right lane and turn at the next opportunity (make
sure you're not turning into a
going the wrong way). Do not turn from the center or left lane.
Ideally, you should be in the right lane at
least a block before you plan to turn. If heavy
traffic or your unfamiliarity with the streets prevents you from doing so", don't panic
few extra blocks is less
an intersection in a lane marked
and you want to go straight.
What should you do?
You must turn left, unless you see the sign
far enough ahead of time to get into a center
lanesafely. (Greater traffic regulation is necesif you break the rules you
sary in the cities
will soon see why.) A general rule to follow is
"Stay in a center lane unless you plan to turn."
"Left Turn Only"
Wait for Walker
You want to turn right. The light is green and
you begin the turn -- - but a pedestrian steps on
You stop at a four-wa- y
stop. So does a car on
a street at a right angle to you
at the same
time. You sit and look at each other. Who has the
He does, since he is on your right. However,
If you were there before he was, you may go
first. (Don't zoom into the intersection too
rapidly, though - he may not know you were
driving down a four-lan- e
and there are red, green,
street. You look up
and amber lights dangling in front of you, right
?n the middle of the block, "What do they mean,"
Lane lights' are used in cities to regulate the
flow of traffic during rush hours. For example,
in the morning, cars going in the direction of
town can travel on the two right lanes, which
are marked with green arrow lights. The third
lane, marked with an amber light, is for passing
and turning and can be used by cars going in
either direction. The fourth
red light facing the town-boun- d
of cars going away from town.
for the use
During the afternoon rush hours, the situation
is reversed, with two lanes available for the use
of cars leaving town, and one for town-boun- d
the directions of the lights: "go" in
the green lanos, "pass" or turn in the amber
lanes (but watch out for cars coming from the
opposite direction passing in that lane, and
"stop" in the red lane that is, stop driving in
it before you have a head-oFollow
You have finally found a parking place on the
right side of a city street. You get ready to back
into it, and discover the front bumper of the car
behind you is two inches away from your bumper.
"Why?" you groan to yourself.
You either neglected to give a right turn signal
in time, or the car behind you did not see it. If
he can back up and let you park, he should do so.
If too many cars have accumulated behind you,
you will just have to look for another parking
(Remember that you should give the appropriate
signal before you pull out of a parking place, as
well as before you stop to park.)
You are stopped at a red light; a green arrow
pointing in the direction in which you wish to
but the other light is still red.
turn comes on
What should you do?
Proceed cautiously in the direction indicated
by the arrow, giving right of way to pedestrians
and other vehicles within the intersection.
THE ECONOMIC COST OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
Russell I. Brown, President Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Washington, D. C.
Partial Reprint from THE POLICE CHIEF, Official Publication, International Association of Chiefs of Police, Inc. July 1965
NATURALLY enough, we usually think of traffic
accidents in terms of their human costs: Death.
Certainly these factors, alone, are sufficient
to require our best efforts to prevent accidents
and the stepping up of those efforts.
There's also another factor that's not reviewed
often enough: the economic burden.
To cite a couple of examples
Leaders of the Florida Traffic Safety Council
wanted to show business and industry what the
state was paying for street and highway
In a widely distributed folder, they pointed to
the heavy and growing death and injury toll.
They also noted:
The economic cost of last year's traffic
accidents was more than $200 million a cost
equal to $40 for every man, woman and child in
The North Carolina Traffic Safety Council
published a booklet for the same purpose
"In North Carolina," 'the booklet reported,
"the estimable direct loss from traffic accidents
every year almost equals the state's annual investment in the public school system for one
Both publications give evidence of the growing
awareness of the huge economic losses that
accidents are imposing. Both of them also give
recognition to a basic fact: to save dollars, you
have to spend dollars.
Everybody engaged in traffic accident prevention has one thing in common: money. The
lack of money, that is.
It's true whether he's a police administrator
or other public official, asking for an adequate
appropriation; or a private safety organization
representative, seeking enough financing.
One reason, of course, is the growing competition among all agencies public and private-f- or
a greater share of the pot. The other reason
that the pot isn't big enough.
Can it be that a new approach is needed -aspect of
that emphasis on the
getting through to the
accidents is not
holders? Maybe people are becoming tone
deaf or shockproof to the
tragedy and suffering - involving other people.
People are simply getting callous to death re
ported on the highway.,
There's need to hit harder on the pocketbook
angle. What are accidents and congestion costing
in terms of
cash, and in terms of
threatening our entire system of moving people
In these terms, the impact may be enough to
jolt the hardest-headebusinessman and the
member of a city council's or
state legislature's appropriations committee.
In these terms, the police chief and his traffic
division are engaged in more than a hazy something called "accident prevention." They're
trying to save people money; trying to help them
to get a better return on the tax dollars they've
put into streets and highways and the dollars
they put into owning and operating a business
and their own motor vehicles.
A National Safety Council formula indicates
that it costs an employer an average of $600 for
each employee injured in traffic; and that average time lost from the job is 112
That adds up to a lot of money -- a lot of lost
National traffic safety authorities have noted
the close relationship between prosperity, motor
vehicle travel and traffic accidents. There's been
abundant supporting evidence in the last several
years: good times, bad safety record.
What does this mean to the police chief, trying
to control accidents, and their drain on human
and economic resources?
It means more people will have more money to
go more places, do more things. More people on
the road. More liquor being consumed. More
drunks driving away from parties.
How can the police administrator, and others
with traffic safety responsibilities, be expected
to cope with this situation? He can't
unless there are
than he can cope with it now
MORE MONEY NEEDED:
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE
Last year, the National Safety Council estimated the U. S. is spending about $700 million
in public funds on police, courts, licensing,
driver education and other official management
services affecting safe and efficient highway
By NSC figures, about $9 million in private
funds is being spent. . .
by national traffic safety service organizations that provide technical guidance to
by state and local citizen safety organizations;
naand, by several privately-finance- d
tional organizations (such as the Insurance
Institute for Highway Safety and the Autoe
motive Safety Foundation) that conduct
Total public and private funds: $709 million
woefully inadequate for satisfactory management
of a $186 billion highway transportation system
in which nearly $82 billion is reinvested annually.
The Action Program covers education, traffic
courts, engineering, motor vehicle administration and other functions related to safer, more
orderly traffic movement. Safety authorities
agree that it's the best guide to traffic accident
The National Safety Council has estimated
that application of this Program at the level required by today's traffic would cost. . .
$500 million MORE annually in state and
local public funds.
$13.5 million MORE annually in private
These additional expenditures are needed,
not only to save lives and prevent injuries, but,
to preserve our system of moving people and
There's an alternative: We can keep on killing
more people, crippling more people, and pouring
more billions down the drain
until the public
gets a bellyful I, and demands that Uncle Sam
It's up to business leaders to:
Contribute to the larger budgets required by
the national traffic service organizations.
Contribute to their local and state citizen
and give leadership in
improving these programs.
We must sell traffic safety to
leaders and to the general walking and driving
When we do this, we'll get the funds we need.