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Page 354 of History of the Army of the Cumberland; its organization, campaigns, and battles, written at the request of Major-General George H. Thomas chiefly from his private military journal and official and other documents furnished by him. Illustrated with campaign and battle maps, compiled by Edward Ruger.

354 BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA. two thousand and throe effective men. With this immense preponderance of strength, Longstreet assaulted with frequency and vigor, but was continually repulsed. The forces before Wood were relatively as strong as before Brannan and Steedman, and were repulsed in every attack. His position was favorable for defense, as the configuration of the ground was equivalent to a parapet. The troops could advance and deliver a plunging fire from the brow of the hill, and by a slight recession while loading, were entirely covered from the bullets of the enemy. The conflict involved the use of the musket solely. Wood had no artillery, and the enemy could not use his to advantage. Late in the afternoon there were indications that Longstreet would throw his troops between Wood and Beynolds, and Hazen's brigade of Palmer's division was transferred to the intervening space. Hazen was sent because he had ammunition, and at the time the general destitution created more alarm than the previous assaults of the enemy had done. Some unauthorized person had ordered General Thomas' corps ammunition train to Chattanooga, and many of the division trains had been separated from the troops they Were intended to supply, and had gone to the rear. On the whole line, the average to the man was not more than three rounds, and in some commands there was less than this. It was common to search the cartridge-boxes of those who fell. Steedman's train afforded a few rounds in addition, but this was soon exhausted, and his own men were at the last entirely destitute. Whenever ammunition failed entirely, the order was given to fix bayonets and hold the hill with cold steel. When Hazen attained position between Beynolds and Wood, he became engaged in severest conflict, and from Reynolds to Steedman the battle raged with unabated fury; but the enemy was gallantly repulsed at every point until night-fall, and in the final attacks, this was accomplished in no slight measure with the bayonet and clubbed muskets.* * The Confederate commanders not only admitted the defensive valor of the national troops, but the spirit and rigor of their offensive returns. General Hindman, who commanded ten brigades on the left of the ene

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