* lere:we need to study and survey what our youth are. doing-what advances,
5tumbling. blocks and why-to the end of vitalizing part-time supplementary
programs is implied. - Night vocational and veteran training centers for men
and wowen are important. Trends indicate that these. and similar training
programs.w'll increase in number and in quality.
Third: The programs shall not remain static. Flexibility, .designed to
facilitate adjustments to meet changing conditions and to add continuously: to
the improvement of occupational standards in accordance with recognized ideals
of democracy, shall permeate them.
Here continued research, guidance, and enrichment and broadening of courses
of study are implied. As wood became obsolete, we taught skills in concrete
and metals; when bolting became too slow, we taught welding; and now when
"blitzkrieg" and atomic production become necessary to insure democracy, we
must teach "blitzkrieg" and atomic theories, methods, and processes.
Fourth: The programs shall attempt to determine drop-out expectancy
from one to two years in advance, and shall administer to this group a practical
program of sound basic education of a semi-skilled nature in trade and industry,
in homemaking, in distributive occupations, or in agriculture, and the like;
designed to facilitate optimum entrance into gainful and useful employment,
The development of opportunity and similar schools is implied here. The duty
of any democratic government to provide educational opportunity for all its
people is manifest in the very nature of government. Present legislation, now
being considered in Congress, is evidence of the trend to equalize educational
opportunities among all States, and for all people within these States.
Fifth: Our programs shall further operate to prevent premature drop outs
before the completion of such adequate educational preparation as is necessary
for useful living according to accepted American standards by (a) making pro-
vision for individual differences and capacities; and (b) developing flexibility
of methods arnd procedures. Here is implied the possible development of a
"vestibule" program that should operate to facilitate transfers to and from
opportunity programs. The pooling of acceptable academic and vocational
principles to accomplish a flexible program to take care of the "Forgotten" 60%
of high school students is already in process.
Sixths Finally, the programs shall develop in close. cooperation with in-
dustry itself, through apprenticeship, on-the-job, and diversified occupational
programs, functional advisory committees, and through the continual bringing
into the work as instructors. men and women who themselves have had some
successful' wage-earning experience in industry.
Many of our recent college graduates worked in occupations of the defense
industries, and came in contact with labor unions and other industrial problems
for the first time. Maine and other States are now requiring Vocational Teachers
to spend intervals of time in industry. It is through such actual experiences
that we can develop the abilities to lead others into a clearer understanding of
In conclusion and briefly, therefore, 1 have advocated a philosophy of voca-
tional education that lies dormant in the principles of the above stated formulas.
This philosophy is based on the assumptions that the range and diversity of apti-