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Page 1269 of Nineteenth century and after : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 3)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps.

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THE TAFF VALE DECISION onies. The expense was borne jointly by Great Britain, Can- ada, and Australia. The cable is about 7,755 miles long and consists of four sections: the first extending from Vancouver, British Columbia, to Fanning Island, a distance of 3,455 miles; the second extending from Fanning Island to the Fiji Islands, 2,100 miles; the third from the Fiji Islands to Nor- folk Island, 1,200 miles; and the fourth from Norfolk Island to Brisbane, Australia, 1,000 miles. A reciprocity treaty between the United States and New- foundland was signed on November S. On the 20th King Edward VII announced his award as to the Argentina-Chile boundary. Chile obtained the larger portion of the disputed territory, but Argentina received the richer and more valu- able tracts of lands. On November 29 Joseph Parker, the most eloquent Non- conformist preacher in England since the days of Charles IT. Spurgeon, died at London. In December a case was decided that has become famous in the annals of British labor legislation. An action had been entered by the Taff Vale Railway Company in England against the Secretary and two officials of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, a trade union, for damages in- curred in connection with the strike on that railway in Au- gust, 1900. The important principle decided was that a trade union, though not a corporate body, can be sued as a legal entity, and that its property, therefore, is liable for the illegal acts of its agents. This entirely reversed the previous com- mon legal conception of a trade union as a body that had no liabilities, but only privileges. On December 2 Thomas Nast, the famous cartoonist, who had been recently appointed U. S. Consul-General at Guav- aquil, Ecuador, died at that place of yellow fever. Mr. Nast, who was born in Germany, came to the United States at an early age. He first worked as an artist upon such illustrated 1269 1902

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