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Page 329 of The westward movement. The colonies and the republic west of the Alleghanies, 1763-1798; with full cartographical illustrations from contemporary sources.

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McGILLI VRA Y. 329 extent of this inflow during the years immediately following the peace ; but it has been reckoned as high as twelve or fifteen thousand a twelvemonth, with proportionate trains of pack-horses and cattle. These numbers included, doubtless, a due share of about four thousand European immigrants, who sought the States yearly. Whenever these wanderers encountered the red man, it was not difficult for the new-comers to discover that, to the savage mind, the enforced transfer of allegiance from the English crown to the new Republio was a change that wronged and incensed the victims of it. To the military man, who was not an uncommon member of the new emigration and who had seen service under Bradstreet and Sullivan, this attitude of the Indian mind boded no little mischief. The restless conditions of the tribes in the southwest offered to Miro, now the Spanish commander at New Orleans, an opportunity for conference and intrigue. The way was opened by the ceaseless endeavors of Alexander McGillivray to form a league of the southern tribes against the Americans, in order, with Spanish countenance and with a simultaneous revolt on the part of the northern tribes, to force the exposed settlers back upon the seaboard. The scheme was a daring one, and no such combination among the redskins had been attempted since the conspiracy of Pontiac. But McGillivray, with all his craft, had little of the powers of mind which the Ottawa chief had possessed, arid his efforts fell short of even the temporary success which Pontiac had achieved. McGillivray was a half-breed Creek, whose mother was of a chief family of that nation. His father was a Scotchman. He had something of the Scotch hard-headedness, and had received an education by no means despicable. Adhering to the royal side in the late war, his property had been confiscated, and he was now adrift, harboring hatred towards the Americans, while he was not amiable towards the British, who had betrayed, as he claimed, himself and his race. As early as January 1, 1784, he had communicated with the Spanish commander at Pensacola, with a proposition for a Spanish alliance. He also intimated the possibility of detaching the over-mountain settlements from the confederacy, maintaining that the west contained two classes of discontents, who might well be induced to play into the hands of 18

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