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Page 617 of Nineteenth century and after : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 2)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps.

FRENCH COMMUNISTIC PHILOSOPHERS guerrilla war dragged itself out, the opposition gained ground. Jos6 Maria Alfaro was recognized as President. In South Amneriea General Rosas made another attempt to subject -Montevideo. Gold was discovered in UTruguay. In the West Indies the restoration of peace in Cuba was followed by edu- cational, far-reaching reforms. Another revolution in Haiti provoked French interference. The French squadron that had made demonstrations in the Caribbean Sea presently descended upon the Marquesas Islands in the southern Pacific, and annexed them to France. In Africa the war against Abd-el-Kader was pushed forward. The Arabs attacked Mostaganem and Arzee, and lured Yus- stuf, the commander of the new French corps of native Spahis, into an ambush. General Valler, with a division of 9.000 men, drove Abd-el-Kader from an intrenched pass between Medah and Muzaia; but the French lost heavily. The Alge- rian war during this year alone cost 12O000 lives and 50,000,- 000 francs. Valle was superseded by Bugeaud. The French general elections had just resulted in favor of the Government, when, on July 13, the Duke of Orlkans was killed by a fall from his carriage. After this event the Chambers fixed the succession to the throne upon the Duke of Nemours, until the children of the Duke of Orleans should be of age. By this time the socialistic theories of Saint Simon and Fourier were exploited still further by Louis Blanc and Proudhon. Blanc's writings had an immense vogue among the workmen of Paris. This was especially true of his "Organization of Labor," published this year, wherein he proclaimed the opportunity to work as a social right. Proud- hon carried Etienne Cabet's "Icarian" theories so far that in his famous book, "What is Propertyv" after describing the conditions under which property is held according to the Na- poleonic Code, he delivered the categorical dictum, "If this 617 1842

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